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Mesoamerican writing systems A stone slab with 3,year-old writing, the Cascajal Blockwas discovered in the Mexican state of Veracruz, and is an example of the oldest script in the Western Hemisphere, preceding the oldest Zapotec writing dated to about BC.
The earliest inscriptions which are identifiably Maya date to the 3rd century BC, and writing was in continuous use until shortly after the arrival of the Spanish conquistadores in the 16th century AD.
Maya writing used logograms complemented by a set of syllabic glyphs: Iron Age writing[ edit ] Cippus PerusinusEtruscan writing near PerugiaItalythe precursor of the Latin alphabet The Phoenician alphabet is simply the Proto-Canaanite alphabet as it was continued into the Iron Age conventionally taken from a cut-off date of BC.
This alphabet gave rise to the Aramaic and Greek alphabets. These in turn led to the writing systems used throughout regions ranging from Western Asia to Africa and Europe. For its part the Greek alphabet introduced for the first time explicit symbols for vowel sounds. The Brahmic family of India is believed by some scholars to have derived from the Aramaic alphabet as well.
Several varieties of the Greek alphabet developed. The other variation, known as Eastern Greekwas used in present-day Turkey and by the Athenians, and eventually the rest of the world that spoke Greek adopted this variation.
After first writing right to left, like the Phoenicians, the Greeks eventually chose to write from left to right. Greek is in turn the source for all the modern scripts of Europe. The most widespread descendant of Greek is the Latin scriptnamed for the Latinsa central Italian people who came to dominate Europe with the rise of Rome.
The Romans learned writing in about the 5th century BC from the Etruscan civilizationwho used one of a number of Italic scripts derived from the western Greeks. Due to the cultural dominance of the Roman state, the other Italic scripts have not survived in any great quantity, and the Etruscan language is mostly lost.
Latin, never one of the primary literary languages, rapidly declined in importance except within the Church of Rome. The primary literary languages were Greek and Persianthough other languages such as Syriac and Coptic were important too.
The rise of Islam in the 7th century led to the rapid rise of Arabic as a major literary language in the region. Arabic script was adopted as the primary script of the Persian language and the Turkish language. This script also heavily influenced the development of the cursive scripts of Greek, the Slavic languagesLatinand other languages[ citation needed ].
The Arabic language also served to spread the Hindu—Arabic numeral system throughout Europe. Renaissance and the modern era[ edit ] By the 14th century a rebirth, or renaissancehad emerged in Western Europe, leading to a temporary revival of the importance of Greek, and a slow revival of Latin as a significant literary language.
A similar though smaller emergence occurred in Eastern Europe, especially in Russia. At the same time Arabic and Persian began a slow decline in importance as the Islamic Golden Age ended. The revival of literary development in Western Europe led to many innovations in the Latin alphabet and the diversification of the alphabet to codify the phonologies of the various languages.
The nature of writing has been constantly evolving, particularly due to the development of new technologies over the centuries. The penthe printing pressthe computer and the mobile phone are all technological developments which have altered what is written, and the medium through which the written word is produced.
Particularly with the advent of digital technologies, namely the computer and the mobile phone, characters can be formed by the press of a button, rather than making a physical motion with the hand.
The nature of the written word has recently evolved to include an informal, colloquial written style, in which an everyday conversation can occur through writing rather than speaking.
Written communication can also be delivered with minimal time delay e-mailSMSand in some cases, with an imperceptible time delay instant messaging.
Writing is a preservable means of communication. Some people regard the growth of multimedia literacy as the first step towards a postliterate society. Writing material There is no very definite statement as to the material which was in most common use for the purposes of writing at the start of the early writing systems.
In the latter case there is this peculiarity, that plaster siclime or gypsum was used along with stone, a combination of materials which is illustrated by comparison of the practice of the Egyptian engravers, who, having first carefully smoothed the stone, filled up the faulty places with gypsum or cement, in order to obtain a perfectly uniform surface on which to execute their engravings.
To the engraving of gems there is reference also, such as with seals or signets. The tablets of the Chaldeans are among the most remarkable of their remains.
Wooden tablets are found pictured on the monuments; but the material which was in common use, even from very ancient times, was the papyrus. This reed, found chiefly in Lower Egypt, had various economic means for writing, the pith was taken out, and divided by a pointed instrument into the thin pieces of which it is composed; it was then flattened by pressure, and the strips glued together, other strips being placed at right angles to them, so that a roll of any length might be manufactured.
Writing seems to have become more widespread with the invention of papyrus in Egypt. That this material was in use in Egypt from a very early period is evidenced by still existing papyrus of the earliest Theban dynasties. As the papyrus, being in great demand, and exported to all parts of the world, became very costly, other materials were often used instead of it, among which is mentioned leather, a few leather mills of an early period having been found in the tombs.
With the invention of wood-pulp paperthe cost of writing material began a steady decline.11 Novels You Never Knew Were Based On Incredible True Stories It was nominated for its beautiful writing and amazing story, Did you know Psycho was a book at all, let alone a book based. Get daily e-book deals and perks—plus, download a free e-book just for signing up!
According to the Bible, God killed or authorized the killings of up to 25 million people. This is the God of which Jesus was an integral part. Historians draw a sharp distinction between prehistory and history, with history defined by the advent of writing.
The cave paintings and petroglyphs of prehistoric peoples can be considered precursors of writing, but they are not considered true writing because they did not represent language directly.
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Currently in our third incarnation, we began in in a downtown Los Angeles loft. Based on a true story is one of those unfortunate catch-phrases that usually has the opposite effect in courting a producer's enthusiasm than most writers assume.
Of the several hundred projects a year I review as a script consultant, nearly 20% are prefaced with some variation on the theme.