Which solute did not appear in the filtrate using any of the membranes

Diffusion and Cell Membranes - I Objectives 1. Define the following terms: Define the following processes and identify the characteristics that distinguish them from one another: Give three factors that affect the rate of diffusion and state whether they increase or decrease the rate.

Which solute did not appear in the filtrate using any of the membranes

What is claimed is: A method for removing unwanted material from a solution comprising the steps of: The method of claim 1 wherein the sieving coefficient is between 0.

The method of claim 1 wherein the solution is a dialysis fluid. The method of claim 1 further comprising the steps of: The method of claim 1 further comprising the step of: The method of claim 1 wherein the solute has molecular weights within a defined range.

A method of removing unwanted material from a bodily fluid comprising the steps of: The method of claim 9 wherein the plurality of membranes have a microporous structure.

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The method of claim 9 wherein the plurality of membranes have a microporous structure providing an asymmetric sieving coefficient. The method of claim 11 wherein the microporous structure providing an asymmetric sieving characteristic is greater for flow from interior to exterior than from exterior to interior.

The method of claim 9 wherein the unwanted material is of a defined range of molecular weights. The method of claim 9 wherein the bodily fluid is human blood. A method of producing biological products by confining living cells in a bioreactor vessel, the vessel having a plurality of dual-skinned hollow membranes with a microporous structure having an asymmetric sieving coefficient wherein the first skin of the dual-skinned membrane has a different degree of porosity than its second skin, the membranes secured in a generally parallel orientation in an enclosure having an interior wherein exteriors of the membranes and the interior of the enclosure define the bioreactor vessel, the method comprising the steps of: The method of claim 16 including the step of: This invention relates generally to fluid filtration devices, such as blood dialysis devices and bioreactors and membranes for such devices.

More specifically, the invention relates to an improved dialysis device having rectifying filtration properties, dual-skinned membranes for performance of such dialysis and other filtration procedures. Dialysis membranes and devices perform important life sustaining functions when used in artificial kidneys and other types of filtration devices.

A well-recognized problem of high flux dialyzers is the back filtration from dialysate to the blood of undesirable molecules. However, such membranes which offer a high rate of diffusion of solutes from the blood to dialysate also suffer from high rates of back diffusion of solutes from dialysate back to the blood.

Similarly, existing membranes which offer a high rate of convection also suffer from high rates of back filtration. A need has, therefore, existed for dialysis membranes which provide for adequate removal of uremic toxins from the blood while preventing back transport of undesirable substances to the blood.

Which solute did not appear in the filtrate using any of the membranes

Similarly, other fluid filtration processes benefit from the availability of membranes having such rectifying properties. A need has also existed for devices, such as bioreactors, in which rectifying membranes provide a means for simultaneously supplying nutrients to and carrying products and waste byproducts from live cells that are used to make products which cannot be economically produced by traditional synthetic chemistry techniques.

The filtration device containing the membranes has rectifying properties, i. An asymmetric sieving coefficient exists in a situation in which, for a given solute, the fraction of the solute which passes through the membrane in one direction is substantially different than the fraction of the solute which passes through the membrane in the opposite direction.

To this end, in an embodiment, a method is provided for removing unwanted material from a solution. The method comprises the steps of: In an embodiment, the sieving coefficient is between 0.

Original Research ARTICLE

In an embodiment, the solution includes a dialysis fluid. In an embodiment, the method further comprises the steps of: In an embodiment, the method further comprises the step of providing an inflow means in fluid communication with interiors of the membranes. In an embodiment, the method further comprises the step of providing an outflow means in fluid communication with ends of the membranes for outflow of the solution.

In an embodiment, the method further comprises the step of providing a second fluid flow path in fluid communication with an interior of the enclosure wherein the solution can be caused to flow in contact with exterior surfaces of the membranes.

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In an embodiment, the unwanted material is in a defined range of molecular weights. In another embodiment of the present invention, a method is provided for removing unwanted material from a bodily fluid. In an embodiment, the plurality of membranes have a microporous structure. In an embodiment, the microporous structure provides an asymmetric sieving coefficient.

In another embodiment of the present invention, a method is provided for producing biological products by confining living cells in a bioreactor vessel, the vessel having a plurality of dual-skinned hollow membranes with a microporous structure having an asymmetric sieving coefficient, the membrane being secured in a generally parallel orientation in an enclosure having an interior wherein the exteriors of the membranes and the interior of the enclosure define the bioreactor vessel.

It is, therefore, an advantage of the present invention to provide a device to separate and concentrate a desired solute.

Chapter 44 - Osmoregulation and Excretion | CourseNotes

A further advantage of the present invention is to provide a method for separating and concentrating a desired solute by repeatedly cycling a solution back and forth across a membrane.

Yet another advantage of the present invention is to provide a method for separating and concentrating solute on one side of the membrane.sieving coefficient is defined as the ratio of the solute concentration in the filtrate to that in the This was performed twice for each of the two membranes.

Temperature of filtrate was noted for every filtration. Filtration A third filtration was performed for each of the two membranes, using a given solution. A sample was taken of.

Method for concentrating a solute with an oscillating filtration device Abstract. Dual-skinned membranes are provided useful as one-way or rectifying membranes which reduce back filtration of solute molecules in dialysis and which improve nutrient supply and product recovery in .

Lab 1D – Using the paper, pencil, and calculator collected, determine solute potentials of the solutions and answer the questions asked to better understand this particular part of the lab.

Lab 1E – Using the materials gathers, prepare a wet mount slide of the epidermis of an onion. inulin is not reabsorbed in any part of kidney glucose and amino acids are highly reabsorbed in the first 25% of early PT HCO 3 - is moderately reabsorbed in first 25% (early) of PT.

Diffusion and Osmosis Objectives: It is assumed that the solute is not diffusing (Figure 1a). The Note if they appear different as compared to the cells in water. Sketch the onion cells in your lab notebook. 7. REPEAT the procedure above for M sodium chloride, M glucose, and .

the filtration rate increased as the solute # increased Which solute did not appear in the filtrate using any of the membranes? a. powdered charcoal What would happen if you increased the driving pressure?

Recrystallization