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Contributed by Stacy E. Walker, PhD, ATC, provided conception and design; acquisition and analysis and interpretation of the data; and drafting, critical revision, and final approval of the article.
Address correspondence to Stacy E. Address e-mail to ude. To provide a brief introduction to the definition and disposition to think critically along with active learning strategies to promote critical thinking.
The development of critical thinking has been the topic of many educational articles recently. Numerous instructional methods exist to promote thought and active learning in the classroom, including case studies, discussion methods, written exercises, questioning techniques, and debates.
Three methods—questioning, written exercises, and discussion and debates—are highlighted. The definition of critical thinking, the disposition Strategies for critical thinking think critically, and different teaching strategies are featured.
Although not appropriate for all subject matter and classes, these learning strategies can be used and adapted to facilitate critical thinking and active participation. Imagine a certified athletic trainer ATC who does not consider all of the injury options when performing an assessment or an ATC who fails to consider using any new rehabilitation techniques because the ones used for years have worked.
Envision ATCs who are unable to react calmly during an emergency because, although they designed the emergency action plan, they never practiced it or mentally prepared for an emergency. These are all examples of situations in which ATCs must think critically.
Presently, athletic training educators are teaching many competencies and proficiencies to entry-level athletic training students. As Davies 1 pointed out, CT is needed in clinical decision making because of the many changes occurring in education, technology, and health care reform. Yet little information exists in the athletic training literature regarding CT and methods to promote thought.
Fuller, 2 using the Bloom taxonomy, classified learning objectives, written assignments, and examinations as CT and nonCT. Athletic training educators fostered more CT in their learning objectives and written assignments than in examinations. The disposition of athletic training students to think critically exists but is weak.
Teaching Strategies to Help Promote Critical Thinking The , Volume 22, issue 1, of the journal, Teaching of Psychology, is devoted to the teaching critical thinking. Most of the strategies included in this section come from . Critical thinking is a skill that young minds will undeniably need and exercise well beyond their school years. Experts agree that in keeping up with the ever-changing technological advances, students will need to obtain, understand, and analyze information on a much more efficient scale. June 12, , Volume 1, Issue 5, No. 8 Driving Question: What Does Critical Thinking Look and Sound Like in an Elementary Classroom?
Leaver-Dunn et al 3 concluded that teaching methods that promote the various components of CT should be used. My purpose is to provide a brief introduction to the definition and disposition to think critically along with active learning strategies to promote CT.
All of these definitions describe an individual who is actively engaged in the thought process. Not only is this person evaluating, analyzing, and interpreting the information, he or she is also analyzing inferences and assumptions made regarding that information.
The use of CT skills such as analysis of inferences and assumptions shows involvement in the CT process. These cognitive skills are employed to form a judgment.
Reflective thinking, defined by Dewey 8 as the type of thinking that consists of turning a subject over in the mind and giving it serious and consecutive consideration, can be used to evaluate the quality of judgment s made.
Therefore, in order to think critically, there must be a certain amount of self-awareness and other characteristics present to enable a person to explain the analysis and interpretation and to evaluate any inferences made.
Many believe that in order to develop CT skills, the disposition to think critically must be nurtured as well.
Open mindedness, wholeheartedness, and responsibility were 3 of the attitudes he felt were important traits of character to develop the habit of thinking. This report resulted from a questionnaire regarding CT completed by a cross-disciplinary panel of experts from the United States and Canada.
Findings included continued support for the theory that to develop CT, an individual must possess and use certain dispositional characteristics. Based upon the dispositional phrases, the California Critical Thinking Dispositional Inventory 13 was developed.
Facione et al 9 purported that a person who thinks critically uses these 7 dispositions to form and make judgments. For example, if an individual is not truth seeking, he or she may not consider other opinions or theories regarding an issue or problem before forming an opinion.
A student may possess the knowledge to think critically about an issue, but if these dispositional affects do not work in concert, the student may fail to analyze, evaluate, and synthesize the information to think critically.
More research is needed to determine the relationship between CT and the disposition to think critically. Although educators value a student who thinks critically about concepts, the spirit or disposition to think critically is, unfortunately, not always present in all students.
Many college faculty expect their students to think critically. Espeland and Shanta 16 argued that faculty who select lecture formats as a large part of their teaching strategy may be enabling students.
When lecturing, the instructor organizes and presents essential information without student input. This practice eliminates the opportunity for students to decide for themselves what information is important to know. For example, instead of telling our students via lecture what medications could be given to athletes with an upper respiratory infection, they could be assigned to investigate medications and decide which one is appropriate.
Table 3 Open in a separate window Students need to be exposed to diverse teaching methods that promote CT in order to nurture the CT process.June 12, , Volume 1, Issue 5, No. 8 Driving Question: What Does Critical Thinking Look and Sound Like in an Elementary Classroom?
Critical thinking is a skill that young minds will undeniably need and exercise well beyond their school years.
Experts agree that in keeping up with the ever-changing technological advances, students will need to obtain, understand, and analyze information on a much more efficient scale. Teaching critical thinking skills is a necessity with our students because they’re crucial skills for living life.
As such, every teacher is looking for interesting ways to integrate it into classrooms. But what exactly are critical thinking skills, and what are some of the best strategies. At the bottom, it pushes a bit further, however, offering 25 critical thinking strategies to help support progressive learning.
While a few are a bit vague (#12 says to “Think critically daily,” and #17 is simply “Well-informed”), overall the graphic does pool together several important themes into a single image.
Critical thinking is a skill that young minds will undeniably need and exercise well beyond their school years. Experts agree that in keeping up with the ever-changing technological advances, students will need to obtain, understand, and analyze information on a much more efficient scale.
Most of us are not what we could be.
We are less. We have great capacity. But most of it is dormant; most is undeveloped. Improvement in thinking is like improvement in basketball, in ballet, or in playing the saxophone.