History[ edit ] The oldest love poem. Sumerian terracotta tablet from Nippur, Iraq. Ancient Orient Museum, Istanbul Main articles: History of poetry and Literary theory Some scholars believe that the art of poetry may predate literacy.
In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content: However, drawing inspiration from Book Ten of Augustine's Confessions, Petrarch's character Augustinus in the Secretum cites Plato on the care of souls: For what does the celestial doctrine of Plato admonish except that the soul should be pushed away from the lusts of the body, and their images eradicated so that purely and Petrarchan lovers essay it may arise toward a deeper vision of the secrets of divinity, to which contemplation of one's own mortality is rightly attached?
These entangled desires, and their mediation through lyric poetry in Petrarch's Canzoniere, gave rise again to the idea of the philosopher-poet whose personal experience of [End Page ] love would stand for universal experience and even historical change.
Petrarch referred to himself alternately as poet, moral philosopher, historian, and rhetorician, and it is perhaps for this reason that early modern and modern thinkers alike identify Petrarch as the driving force behind Renaissance self-determination.
In Italian Renaissance literature, role-playing became part of the Petrarchan charge, as Petrarch himself had engaged in role identifications as a means of philosophical investigation.
The Petrarchan lover in Italian comedy is a pale shadow of the lyric poet who was also a moral philosopher, a historian, and a rhetorician.
As a negative ethical model, the aging lover-poet that appears in a number of Cinquecento comedies proves to be more than just the butt of the joke that his own role-playing generates.
The derided Petrarchan lover, who becomes a fixture in the Italian cultural tradition, also signals a broader cultural critique of the problematic equation between philosophical and aesthetic ideals and social practice.
This critique can be seen in the lover's ludic superficiality, which is anchored in his poetic language. The aging lover invites depreciatory judgment throughout sixteenth-century comedy for a number of reasons. For one, his presence in comedy signals an underlying ethical concern, as his actions counter the kind of moral and material autonomy that were said to support civic duty.
Looking at examples of poetic speeches by lovers in Bibbiena's La CalandriaJacopo Nardi's I Due Felici RivaliRuzzante's L'AnconitanaAretino's La cortigiana andPiccolomini's L'Alessandro and Bruno's Candelaiothis essay considers how the Petrarchan lover's falsification of verse and misdirected passion playfully subvert the seeking of self that was central to Petrarch's Canzoniere, as well as the social application of Petrarchan and neo-Platonic ideals as promoted by sixteenth-century writers Pietro Bembo and Baldassare Castiglione.
When Bibbiena's Calandro mixes his metaphors in Calandria "Thief of my eyes"or Aretino's Maco recites an epigram in praise of himself in Cortigiana "O gorgeous boy, with your pipe you meditate upon the muse"the [End Page ] results are humorous indeed.
With the appearance of the verse-mangling lover, comedy joins other forms of satirical literature that debase high genres like epic poetry or lofty discourses offered by rhetoricians and philosophers.
Did comic theater constitute a less probable instrument for philosophical investigation than tragedy or allegorical narrative in the Renaissance? How did comic closure, and the elimination of complexity, work for or against comedy's ethical drives?
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View freely available titles:Related Content 10 Greatest Love Poems Ever Written 10 Greatest Sonnets Concerning Other Poets The Earliest English Poems Ever Written 10 Greatest Novels Ever Written. Biography Youth and early career.
Petrarch was born in the Tuscan city of Arezzo in He was the son of Ser Petracco and his wife Eletta Canigiani. His given name was Francesco Petracco.
The name was Latinized to Petrarca. Petrarch's younger brother was born in Incisa in Val d'Arno in Dante was a friend of his father.. Petrarch spent his early childhood in the village of Incisa, near. For hundreds of years poets have used the sonnet to express their feelings, usually placing emphasis on the theme of courtly love.
It is estimated that the earliest sonnets date from around AD, and they were probably sung as expressions of romantic love in Italian courtyards.
Petrarch's and Shakespeare's lovers Sketch of Petrarch and his Laura as Venus (ca. ) Although Petrarch is accredited with perfection of the sonnet, Shakespeare still made changes in sonnet form and composition years after Petrarch's death.
A Critical Comparison of Shakespeare's "Sonnet " and Elizabeth Barrett-Browning's "Sonnet 14" - Petrarchan sonnets are like all the other typical sonnets in the early sixteenth which consist of 14 verses in the poem and 10 syllables per line.
The HyperTexts English Poetry Timeline and Chronology English Literature Timeline and Chronology World Literature Timeline and Chronology This is a timeline of English poetry and literature, from the earliest Celtic, Gaelic, Druidic, Anglo-Roman, Anglo-Saxon and Anglo-Norman works, to the present day.