For example, whether an employee can spend work time checking personal email accounts, how a manager deals with claims of harassment and to what extent a manager can "groom" a certain employee for a promotion are all examples of ethical issues regarding employee behavior. A business needs to develop plans for dealing with problems early to help prevent legal issues as the enterprise grows. Employee Behavior and Legal Issues There are legal consequences for some unethical employee behavior.
Research ethics involve requirements on daily work, the protection of dignity of subjects and the publication of the information in the research. However, when nurses participate in research they have to cope with three value systems; society; nursing and science which may be in conflict with the values of subjects, communities, and societies and create tensions and dilemmas in nursing.
Using the Medline and the Nursing Cinahl data base, the most important ethical issues which appear in bibliography, will be addressed. After a short description of the nature of nursing, and the advocacy role of nurses, the writer will attempt to highlight the possible conflicts that nurses have to deal with, when undertaking or participating in research.
The major ethical issues in conducting research are: However, both the nature of nursing which focuses on caring, preventing harm and protecting dignity and the advocates role of nurses which calls for defending the rights of subjects, are sometimes incongruent with the ethics in research.
Ethical issues, conflicting values, and ambiguity in decision making, are recurrently emerging from literature review on nursing research.
Because of lack of clarity in ethical standards, nurses must develop an awareness of these issues and an effective framework to deal with problems involving human rights. Keywords Research ethics, moral dilemmas in research, nature of nursing, nursing research, nursing advocacy Introduction Ethics is rooted in the ancient Greek philosophical inquiry of moral life.
It refers to a system of principles which can critically change previous considerations about choices and actions.
Scientific research work, as all human activities, is governed by individual, community and social values. However, when nurses participate in research they have to cope with three value systems; society; nursing and science.
The societal values about human rights, the nursing culture based on the ethic of caring and the researcher's values about scientific inquiry. According to Clarke these values may conflict with the values of subjects, communities, and societies and create tensions and dilemmas in nursing.
Historical overview- Ethical codes Human experimentation has been conducted even before 18th century. However, the ethical attitudes of researchers drawn the interest of society only after 's because of human exploitation in several cases. Professional codes and laws were introduced since then in order to prevent scientific abuses of human lives.
This code focuses on voluntary informed consent, liberty of withdrawal from research, protection from physical and mental harm, or suffering and death. It also emphasises the risk- benefit balance. It was only in with the declaration of Helsinki that the need for non therapeutic research was initiated.
Since then there has been a significant development of professional codes in conduct and research. Beauchamp and Childress define autonomy as the ability for self determination in action according to a personal plan. It also seeks to prevent assaults on the integrity of the patient and protect personal liberty and veracity.
In this study, rural black men were chosen as subjects in a study of syphilis. Although a cure for syphilis was found after the start of the study, it was decided not to treat them and they had not been told that penicillin was effective to their disease.
He must also provide a "Noncoersive Disclaimer" which states that participation is voluntary and no penalties are involved in refusal to participate. The researcher must also take into account that persons with physical, cultural and emotional barriers may require a very simple language in order to understand him.
The Declaration of Helsinki provide some help as it declares that the interest of the subject must always prevail over the interests of society and science. Another major ethical issue is obtaining an informed consent from groups with diminished autonomy which will be further discussed later.
From what has been discussed, it becomes clear that disclosure, comprehension, competency and voluntariness are the four essential parts of a consent. Beauchamp and Childress, suggest that "the principle of beneficence includes the professional mandate to do effective and significant research so as to better serve and promote the welfare of our constituents".
Carr says that if the research findings prove that it was not beneficial as it s expected, this can raise immense ethical considerations especially for nurses.
According to Burns and Grove "discomfort and harm can be physiological, emotional, social and economic in nature".Jun 29, · In the complex global business environment of the 21st century, companies of every size face a multitude of ethical issues. Businesses have the responsibility to develop codes of conduct and.
Psychology is a very sensitive field and ethical concerns are likely to arise when carrying out research and prescribing any method of treatment to an individual.
The ethical issues in psychology will help discover the various areas in the field that should be tread upon with sensitivity. The range and quantity of business ethical issues reflect the interaction of profit-maximizing behavior with non-economic concerns.
Interest in business ethics accelerated dramatically during the s and s, both within major corporations and within academia. Major ethical issues a business faces involve employee interactions, working conditions and decisions regarding hiring, firing and promotions.
each business area has its own ethical concerns.
Nov 15, · Tech giants such as Alphabet, Amazon, Facebook, IBM and Microsoft – as well as individuals like Stephen Hawking and Elon Musk – believe that now is the right time to talk about the nearly boundless landscape of artificial intelligence.
Evolutionary ethics concerns approaches to ethics (morality) based on the role of evolution in shaping human psychology and behavior. Such approaches may be based in scientific fields such as evolutionary psychology or sociobiology, with a focus on understanding .