Meaning philosophy of language There have been several distinctive explanations of what a linguistic "meaning" is. Each has been associated with its own body of literature.
The opening to the Old English epic poem Beowulfhandwritten in half-uncial script: We of the Spear-Danes from days of yore have heard of the glory of the folk-kings In the fifth century, the Anglo-Saxons settled Britain as the Roman economy and administration collapsed.
A few short inscriptions from the early period of Old English were written using a runic script. Its grammar was similar to that of modern Germanand its closest relative is Old Frisian. Nouns, adjectives, pronouns, and verbs had many more inflectional endings and formsand word order was much freer than in Modern English.
Modern English has case forms in pronouns he, him, his and a few verb endings I have, he hasbut Old English had case endings in nouns as well, and verbs had more person and number endings.
Although, from the beginning, Englishmen had three manners of speaking, southern, northern and midlands speech in the middle of the country, … Nevertheless, through intermingling and mixing, first with Danes and then with Normans, amongst many the country language has arisen, and some use strange stammering, chattering, snarling, and grating gnashing.
John of Trevisaca. Middle English is often arbitrarily defined as beginning with the conquest of England by William the Conqueror inbut it developed further in the period from — First, the waves of Norse colonisation of northern parts of the British Isles in the 8th and 9th centuries put Old English into intense contact with Old Norsea North Germanic language.
Norse influence was strongest in the Northeastern varieties of Old English spoken in the Danelaw area around York, which was the centre of Norse colonisation; today these features are still particularly present in Scots and Northern English.
However the centre of norsified English seems to have been in the Midlands around Lindseyand after CE when Lindsey was reincorporated into the Anglo-Saxon polity, Norse features spread from there into English varieties that had not been in intense contact with Norse speakers.
Some elements of Norse influence that persist in all English varieties today are the pronouns beginning with th- they, them, their which replaced the Anglo-Saxon pronouns with h- hie, him, hera.
The Norman language in England eventually developed into Anglo-Norman. Because Norman was spoken primarily by the elites and nobles, while the lower classes continued speaking Anglo-Saxon, the influence of Norman consisted of introducing a wide range of loanwords related to politics, legislation and prestigious social domains.
The distinction between nominative and accusative case was lost except in personal pronouns, the instrumental case was dropped, and the use of the genitive case was limited to describing possession. The inflectional system regularised many irregular inflectional forms,  and gradually simplified the system of agreement, making word order less flexible.
By the 12th century Middle English was fully developed, integrating both Norse and Norman features; it continued to be spoken until the transition to early Modern English around In the Middle English period, the use of regional dialects in writing proliferated, and dialect traits were even used for effect by authors such as Chaucer.
Early Modern English Main article: Early Modern English Graphic representation of the Great Vowel Shiftshowing how the pronunciation of the long vowels gradually shifted, with the high vowels i: Early Modern English was characterised by the Great Vowel Shift —inflectional simplification, and linguistic standardisation.
It was a chain shiftmeaning that each shift triggered a subsequent shift in the vowel system. Mid and open vowels were raisedand close vowels were broken into diphthongs. For example, the word bite was originally pronounced as the word beet is today, and the second vowel in the word about was pronounced as the word boot is today.
The Great Vowel Shift explains many irregularities in spelling since English retains many spellings from Middle English, and it also explains why English vowel letters have very different pronunciations from the same letters in other languages.
Aroundthe Court of Chancery in Westminster began using English in its official documentsand a new standard form of Middle English, known as Chancery Standarddeveloped from the dialects of London and the East Midlands.
InWilliam Caxton introduced the printing press to England and began publishing the first printed books in London, expanding the influence of this form of English. Even after the vowel shift the language still sounded different from Modern English: Many of the grammatical features that a modern reader of Shakespeare might find quaint or archaic represent the distinct characteristics of Early Modern English.
The Foxes haue holes and the birds of the ayre haue nests  This exemplifies the loss of case and its effects on sentence structure replacement with Subject-Verb-Object word order, and the use of of instead of the non-possessive genitiveand the introduction of loanwords from French ayre and word replacements bird originally meaning "nestling" had replaced OE fugol.
Spread of Modern English By the late 18th century, the British Empire had facilitated the spread of English through its colonies and geopolitical dominance.
Commerce, science and technology, diplomacy, art, and formal education all contributed to English becoming the first truly global language. English also facilitated worldwide international communication. In the post-colonial period, some of the newly created nations that had multiple indigenous languages opted to continue using English as the official language to avoid the political difficulties inherent in promoting any one indigenous language above the others.
In Samuel Johnson published his A Dictionary of the English Language which introduced a standard set of spelling conventions and usage norms. InNoah Webster published the American Dictionary of the English language in an effort to establish a norm for speaking and writing American English that was independent from the British standard.
Within Britain, non-standard or lower class dialect features were increasingly stigmatised, leading to the quick spread of the prestige varieties among the middle classes.
Earlier English did not use the word "do" as a general auxiliary as Modern English does; at first it was only used in question constructions where it was not obligatory.My high school is a science and technology based school.
That means that we have a laptop program that provides us with computers to use 24/7 while we're there, and they are used during pretty much every class (with some exceptions - some math classes, art and music have Mac labs, and gym). The ACTFL Performance Descriptors for Language Learners are designed to describe language performance that is the result of explicit instruction in an instructional setting.
These new Performance Descriptors reflect how language learners perform whether learning in classrooms, online, through independent project-based learning, or in blended environments.
Methodology now tries to ensure that learners are given realistic presentations of language in use and its communicative intentions, for example, the present progressive might be presented through a dialogue. English pathways to University study.
UWA CELT offers two ways, or pathways, to improve English language proficiency to the level required by the University for entry into its undergraduate and postgraduate studies.
which actively discusses the future and prepares students for their lives ahead. In this short article, then, I want to consider what, our role as language teachers could be in this. That is, what it might mean to talk of “language teaching for the future”. My aim is to stimulate discussion—to be provocative, in fact.
English is an Indo-European language and belongs to the West Germanic group of the Germanic languages. Old English originated from a Germanic tribal and linguistic continuum along the coast of the North Sea, whose languages are now known as the Anglo-Frisian subgroup within West Germanic.
As such, the modern Frisian languages are the closest living relatives of Modern English.