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Below are standard formats and examples for basic bibliographic information recommended by the American Psychological Association APA. For more information on the APA format, see http: Basics Your list of works cited should begin at the end of the paper on a new page with the centered title, References.
Alphabetize the entries in your list by the author's last name, using the letter-by-letter system ignore spaces and other punctuation. Only the initials of the first and middle names are given. If the author's name is unknown, alphabetize by the title, ignoring any A, An, or The.
For dates, spell out the names of months in the text of your paper, but abbreviate them in the list of works cited, except for May, June, and July.
Use either the day-month-year style 22 July or the month-day-year style July 22, and be consistent. With the month-day-year style, be sure to add a comma after the year unless another punctuation mark goes there.
When reports were written on typewriters, the names of publications were underlined because most typewriters had no way to print italics. If you write a bibliography by hand, you should still underline the names of publications. But, if you use a computer, then publication names should be in italics as they are below.
Always check with your instructor regarding their preference of using italics or underlining. Our examples use italics. Capitalization, Abbreviation, and Punctuation The APA guidelines specify using sentence-style capitalization for the titles of books or articles, so you should capitalize only the first word of a title and subtitle.
The exceptions to this rule would be periodical titles and proper names in a title which should still be capitalized. The periodical title is run in title case, and is followed by the volume number which, with the title, is also italicized.
If there are more than six authors, list only the first one and use et al. Place the date of publication in parentheses immediately after the name of the author.
Place a period after the closing parenthesis. Do not italicize, underline, or put quotes around the titles of shorter works within longer works. Format Examples Books Format: Author's last name, first initial. Vanishing wildlife of North America. A history of the heroes of the imagination. A practical guide for creating tables.
A reader's guide to science fiction. Facts on File, Inc. Title of Encyclopedia Volume, pages. In The new encyclopedia britannica Vol.
Merriam-Webster's collegiate dictionary 10th ed. Periodical title, volume number issue number if availableinclusive pages. Do not enclose the title in quotation marks.A bibliography, by definition, is the detailed listing of the books, journals, magazines, or online sources that an author has used in researching and writing their work.
Citation Style: Chapters Journal is a blanket term for a scholarly publication that is published periodically-generally either monthly or quarterly. A journal is distinct from a magazine in that journals are generally for a very specific audience: experts within a specific scholarly or professional field.
APA (American Psychological Association) style is most frequently used within the social sciences, in order to cite various sources. This APA Citation Guide, revised according to the 6th edition of the APA manual, provides the general format for in-text citations and the reference page.
Aug 29, · In this Article: Article Summary Creating APA Style References Manually Creating APA References with an Online Generator Formatting and Ordering Your References Community Q&A Once you finish writing a research paper, you will need to cite the sources you used to do your research%(24).
American Psychological Association (APA) Annotations Creating an annotated bibliography in APA style The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association 6th edition (APA Manual) is kept behind the IRC Desk on the Ground Floor.
The American Psychological Association (APA) style began as a way to simplify scientific writing. APA is also used by many college professors and students when submitting academic essays.
APA style incorporates a set of rules that guide the writer in such tasks as formatting a reference list.