How David beats Goliath I remember this article. It is about high school girls basketball. I think lots of youth sports balances sub-optimal playing with actually playing something resembling the sport. I know in my early youth leagues, playing defense in the back court was just declared against the rules of the league, because otherwise we would just never learn how to play actual basketball.
Flynn effect Since the early 20th century, raw scores on IQ tests have increased in most parts of the world. The phenomenon of rising raw score performance means if test-takers are scored by a constant standard scoring rule, IQ test scores have been rising at an average rate of around three IQ points per decade.
Flynnthe author who did the most to bring this phenomenon to the attention of psychologists. Mackintoshnoted the Flynn effect demolishes the fears that IQ would be decreased.
He also asks whether it represents a real increase in intelligence beyond IQ scores. The phenomenon has been termed the negative Flynn effect.
However, later researchers pointed out this phenomenon is related to the Flynn effect and is in part a cohort effect rather than a true aging effect. A variety of studies of IQ and aging have been conducted since the norming of the first Wechsler Intelligence Scale drew attention to IQ differences in different age groups of adults.
Current consensus is that fluid intelligence generally declines with age after early adulthood, while crystallized intelligence remains intact. Both cohort effects the birth year of the test-takers and practice effects test-takers taking the same form of IQ test more than once must be controlled to gain accurate data.
It is unclear whether any lifestyle intervention can preserve fluid intelligence into older ages. Cross-sectional studies usually show that especially fluid intelligence peaks at a relatively young age often in the early adulthood while longitudinal data mostly show that intelligence is stable until the mid adulthood or later.
Subsequently, intelligence seems to decline slowly. Their relative importance has been the subject of much research and debate. Heritability of IQ and Environment and intelligence Heritability is defined as the proportion of variance in a trait which is attributable to genotype within a defined population in a specific environment.
A number of points must be considered when interpreting heritability. Heritability measures how much of that variation is caused by genetics. The value of heritability can change if the impact of environment or of genes in the population is substantially altered.
A high heritability of a trait does not mean environmental effects, such as learning, are not involved. Since heritability increases during childhood and adolescence, one should be cautious drawing conclusions regarding the role of genetics and environment from studies where the participants are not followed until they are adults.
This shared family environment accounts for 0. By late adolescence, it is quite low zero in some studies. The effect for several other psychological traits is similar. These studies have not looked at the effects of extreme environments, such as in abusive families.
One suggestion is that children react differently to the same environment because of different genes. More likely influences may be the impact of peers and other experiences outside the family. Deary and colleagues reported that no finding of a strong single gene effect on IQ has been replicated.
In this model, the Flynn effect can be explained by an increase in environmental stimulation independent of it being sought out by individuals. More intensive, but much smaller projects such as the Abecedarian Project have reported lasting effects, often on socioeconomic status variables, rather than IQ.
A study on young adults published in April by a team from the Universities of Michigan and Bern supports the possibility of the transfer of fluid intelligence from specifically designed working memory training.
Among other questions, it remains to be seen whether the results extend to other kinds of fluid intelligence tests than the matrix test used in the study, and if so, whether, after training, fluid intelligence measures retain their correlation with educational and occupational achievement or if the value of fluid intelligence for predicting performance on other tasks changes.
It is also unclear whether the training is durable of extended periods of time. However, multiple attempted replications e. Neuroscience and intelligence Several neurophysiological factors have been correlated with intelligence in humans, including the ratio of brain weight to body weight and the size, shape, and activity level of different parts of the brain.
Specific features that may affect IQ include the size and shape of the frontal lobes, the amount of blood and chemical activity in the frontal lobes, the total amount of gray matter in the brain, the overall thickness of the cortex, and the glucose metabolic rate.
Impact of health on intelligence and Cognitive epidemiology Health is important in understanding differences in IQ test scores and other measures of cognitive ability. Several factors can lead to significant cognitive impairment, particularly if they occur during pregnancy and childhood when the brain is growing and the blood—brain barrier is less effective.
Such impairment may sometimes be permanent, sometimes be partially or wholly compensated for by later growth. Hassel postulated that it is by far the most important factor in determining population IQ. However, they also found that subsequent factors such as good nutrition and regular quality schooling can offset early negative effects to some extent.
Developed nations have implemented several health policies regarding nutrients and toxins known to influence cognitive function.
These include laws requiring fortification of certain food products and laws establishing safe levels of pollutants e.Women of the Republic: Intellect and Ideology in Revolutionary America (Published by the Omohundro Institute of Early American History and Culture and the University of North Carolina Press) [Linda K.
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