History of biology

To The following bibliography and full-text archive is designed as a service to advanced students and researchers engaged in work in biogeography, biodiversity, history of science, and related studies. The subjects involved touch on fields ranging from ecology, conservation, systematics and physical geography, to evolutionary biology, cultural biogeography, paleobiology, and bioclimatology—but have in common a relevance to the study of geographical distribution and diversity. He was one of the founders of the Neo- Lamarckian school of evolutionary thought.

History of biology

The best known aspect of morphology, usually called anatomy, is the study of gross structure, or form, of organs and organisms. It should not be inferred however, that even the human body, which has been extensively studied, has been so completely explored that nothing… Gross anatomy This ancient discipline reached its culmination between andby which time its subject matter was firmly established.

Beliefs in life after death and a disquieting uncertainty concerning the possibility of bodily resurrection further inhibited systematic study. Nevertheless, knowledge of the body was acquired by treating wounds, aiding in childbirthand setting broken limbs. The field remained speculative rather than descriptive, though, until the achievements of the Alexandrian medical school and its foremost figure, Herophilus flourished bcewho dissected human cadavers and thus gave anatomy a considerable factual basis for the first time.

Herophilus made many important discoveries and was followed by his younger contemporary Erasistratuswho is sometimes regarded as the founder of physiology. In the History of biology century ce, Greek physician Galen assembled and arranged all the discoveries of the Greek anatomists, including History of biology them his own concepts of physiology and his discoveries in experimental medicine.

The many books Galen wrote became the unquestioned authority for anatomy and medicine in Europe because they were the only ancient Greek anatomical texts that survived the Dark Ages in the form of Arabic and then Latin translations. Hieronymus FabriciusGabriello Fallopiusand Bartolomeo Eustachio were among the most important Italian anatomists, and their detailed studies led to fundamental progress in the related field of physiology.

Microscopic anatomy The new application of magnifying glasses and compound microscopes to biological studies in the second half of the 17th century was the most important factor in the subsequent development of anatomical research.

Thenceforth attention gradually shifted from the identification and understanding of bodily structures visible to the naked eye to those of microscopic size. These technical advances enabled Matthias Jakob Schleiden and Theodor Schwann to recognize in —39 that the cell is the fundamental unit of organization in all living things.

History of biology

The need for thinner, more transparent tissue specimens for study under the light microscope stimulated the development of improved methods of dissection, notably machines called microtomes that can slice specimens into extremely thin sections.

In order to better distinguish the detail in these sections, synthetic dyes were used to stain tissues with different colours. Thin sections and staining had become standard tools for microscopic anatomists by the late 19th century.

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The field of cytologywhich is the study of cells, and that of histologywhich is the study of tissue organization from the cellular level up, both arose in the 19th century with the data and techniques of microscopic anatomy as their basis.

In the 20th century anatomists tended to scrutinize tinier and tinier units of structure as new technologies enabled them to discern details far beyond the limits of resolution of light microscopes. These advances were made possible by the electron microscopewhich stimulated an enormous amount of research on subcellular structures beginning in the s and became the prime tool of anatomical research.

About the same time, the use of X-ray diffraction for studying the structures of many types of molecules present in living things gave rise to the new subspecialty of molecular anatomy.

Anatomical nomenclature Scientific names for the parts and structures of the human body are usually in Latin; for example, the name musculus biceps brachii denotes the biceps muscle of the upper arm.


Some such names were bequeathed to Europe by ancient Greek and Roman writers, and many more were coined by European anatomists from the 16th century on.

Expanding medical knowledge meant the discovery of many bodily structures and tissues, but there was no uniformity of nomenclatureand thousands of new names were added as medical writers followed their own fancies, usually expressing them in a Latin form.

History of Biology | History of Life on Earth | Biology Explorer

By the end of the 19th century the confusion caused by the enormous number of names had become intolerable. Medical dictionaries sometimes listed as many as 20 synonyms for one name, and more than 50, names were in use throughout Europe. In the German Anatomical Society undertook the task of standardizing the nomenclature, and, with the help of other national anatomical societies, a complete list of anatomical terms and names was approved in that reduced the 50, names to 5,Biology Technology – Florida’s PreIB Biology 1 – IB Middle Years Program Biology – Integrated Science 3 – Oyster Biology & Ecology.

Scientific Name: Crassostrea virginica Common Names: Eastern oyster, American oyster Classification: Kingdom Animalia Phylum Mollusca Class Pelecypoda or Bivalvia Order Lamellibranchia Family Filibranchia Genus Crassostrea species virginica. Range and Habitat. The American or eastern oyster is found along the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts of North America.

Biology: Biology, study of living things and their vital processes that deals with all the physicochemical aspects of life. Modern principles of other fields, such as chemistry, medicine, and physics, for example, are integrated with those of biology in areas such as biochemistry, biomedicine, and biophysics.

Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical processes, Especially important are his History of Animals and other works where he showed naturalist leanings, and later more empirical works that focused on .

This exercise is a simulation of human karyotyping using digital images of chromosomes from actual human genetic studies. You will be arranging chromosomes into a completed karyotype, and interpreting your findings just as if you were working in a genetic analysis program at a hospital or clinic.

biology. If you’re studying the life cycles of living organisms, you’ve come to the right place. We break down the processes of everything from bacteria to blue whales.

Karyotyping Activity