Conclusion INTRODUCTION The United States is - by size of electorate - the second largest democracy on the globe India is the largest and Indonesia comes third and the most powerful nation on earth, politically, economically and militarily, but its political system is in many important respects unlike any other in the world. This essay then was written originally to inform non-Americans as to how the American political system works. What has been striking, however, is how many Americans - especially young Americans - have found the essay useful and insightful.
In what international observers called a "developing multiparty system," parties were challenged to become all-inclusive and not to limit their appeal to their traditional constituent groups.
They also had to reorient themselves to participate in the bicameral multiracial legislature rather than the previous tricameral apartheid-based parliament.
The most successful of the parties in the April elections and the South African Communist Party are described below, in order of decreasing parliamentary strength.
Pixley Ka Isaka Seme, a Durban attorney. It was renamed the African National Congress in In they established the ANC Youth League to mobilize mass protest against racial discrimination. Following the rise to power of the NP in and its implementation of strict apartheid laws, the ANC, with many of the Youth League founders then in leadership positions, responded by Growth of political parties a series of countrywide defiance campaigns.
In the mids, the ANC formed the Congress Alliance with other antiapartheid organizations to oppose the white state. On June 26,alliance members adopted the Freedom Charter, which advocated the creation of a nonsocialist multiracial society, but the debate over the charter widened an ideological rift in the ANC between Charterists and Africanists, concerning the question of multiracialism.
The government declared the ANC an illegal organization on April 8,as part of a government crackdown and state of emergency following violent antiapartheid incidents at Sharpeville and Langa. The ANC went underground, many of its cadres left South Africa for exile in neighboring states, and its leaders adopted armed struggle as a Growth of political parties of achieving their goals.
The principle of armed struggle through guerrilla warfare to overthrow the South African regime superseded the goal of gaining political rights for all citizens. ANC sabotage and attacks between and led to the arrest of many party leaders.
At the trial that became renowned as "the Rivonia trial," Mandela, Sisulu, Govan Mbeki, and others were convicted of treason and were sentenced to life terms in prison.
Over the years, the ANC built up a strong support network in many Western and Eastern-bloc states, in cooperation with overseas antiapartheid groups.
The ANC also attained observer status at the UN and during the s broadened its diplomatic ties with Western states. A ninety-member National Executive Committee NEC consults with senior officers and influences decisions on important issues.
At a working level, the party has nine national departments--Information and Research, Manpower and Development, Foreign Affairs, Youth, Political Education, Information and Publicity, Finance, Religious Affairs, and Women--as well as branches in each of the provinces.
In the early s, the ANC took a number of steps to broaden its political base. It reactivated the ANC Youth League in order to bridge the generational gap between its older leaders and young members. Although the ANC primarily represents the interests of the majority black population, its membership is open to whites, coloureds, and Asians, as well.
It had appealed to all races to join inand a substantial number of white liberals did join during the s and the s. In Aprilfive white members of parliament representing the Democratic Party left that party to join the ANC, giving the ANC official parliamentary representation for the first time in the all-white House of Assembly.
In the ANC adopted an official policy advocating armed struggle to gain political control of the state, and in it promulgated the Constitutional Guidelines for a Democratic South Africa, derived from the Freedom Charter of the s. These guidelines called for a nonracial democratic state based on universal franchise.
In Augustthe ANC adopted the Harare Declaration, advocating multiparty negotiations to arrive at a new form of government, giving strong emphasis to the concept of individual rights.
SACP leaders helped the ANC to secure the support of communist and socialist governments during its period of exile, played important roles in ANC policy formulation, and helped to consolidate support for the ANC in the labor movement.
The issue of political succession had yet to be resolved. President Mandela and other senior party leaders were members of the older generation, whose active leadership years were drawing to a close. Mandela had pledged he would not seek reelection in His most likely successors--Thabo Mbeki, the former ANC secretary for international affairs, and Cyril Ramaphosa, ANC secretary general since had not demonstrated the decades of practiced leadership of their seniors.
The ANC also had to overcome its image as a violator of human rights after its leaders acknowledged there had been instances of torture, execution, and abuse of dissidents in its exile camps and in some black townships during the antiapartheid struggle.
In the party apologized for past abuses, but it refused to punish its human rights violators or to pay compensation to the victims or their families. In the ANC proposed a number of controversial cabinet appointments, adding to the difficulties inherent in transforming itself from a former liberation movement into a broad-based political party.
Mandela went on to organize an independent power base in the restive and impoverished squatter camps, where she was respected for her activism on behalf of the poor. In some communities, Mrs.
Mandela was able to capitalize on the widespread distrust of government that extended even to black leaders like Nelson Mandela.
During the preelection negotiations, she had criticized power-sharing proposals as a deal between "the elite of the oppressed and the oppressors" and had charged ANC leaders with "the distortion of a noble goal in favor of a short-cut route to parliament by a handful of individuals.
Mandela continued to live in relative luxury in the Johannesburg township of Soweto.The United States Constitution is silent on the subject of political parties. The Founding Fathers did not originally intend for American politics to be partisan.
In Federalist Papers No. 9 and No. 10, Alexander Hamilton and James Madison, respectively, wrote specifically about the dangers of domestic political vetconnexx.com addition, the first President of the United States, George Washington.
OTHER PARTIES (Parties that have yet to field or endorse any candidates for office) AMERICAN EAGLE PARTY (AMERICAN FREEDOM UNION) - Launched in , the AEP is the political party of the white supremacist splinter group American Freedom Union, which formed from a split in the American Freedom Party.
Cabinet: Cabinet, in political systems, a body of advisers to a chief of state who also serve as the heads of government departments. The cabinet has become an important element of government wherever legislative powers have been vested in a parliament, but its form differs markedly in various countries.
View the registration status, level and contact details of political parties. Political party, a group of persons organized to acquire and exercise political power.
Political parties originated in their modern form in Europe and the United States in the 19th century, along with the electoral and parliamentary systems, whose development reflects the evolution of parties.
The. PLO (Munazzimat al-Tahrir al-Filastiniyya). The PLO (Palestine Liberation Organization) is the umbrella organization of the Palestinian Resistance. PLO was founded with Egyptian backing, under Ahmed Shukhairy as chairman.