For more history, see Founding Fathers. The deliberate union of so great and various a people in such a place, is without all partiality or prejudice, if not the greatest exertion of human understanding, the greatest single effort of national deliberation that the world has ever seen.
Cut and Fill Marianne Parsons When planning the design and construction of a building, architects and engineers must first consider the existing conditions of the site. Most often, the given site is not level and must be modified before any construction can begin.
So, the cut and fill process is typically one of the first construction processes to take place on a site. Without computer software to determine the amount of land to be added or removed, we can do simple calculations to estimate the cut and fill volume of any site.
First, the site is divided into sections. Essentially, the site is "sliced" into segments of land, at a specified fixed distance apart, so we can look at each segment individually.
Section cuts are drawn based on the topography of the land in order to accurately represent the land that is being evaluated. The topography map describes the existing slopes of the land, and allows us to draw site elevations in our section cuts.
Each line on the topography map represents a change in elevation of 10 feet. So the section at 0ft the red dashed line above looks like this in elevation: Then, by removing the elevation lines, we get the following section for the existing site elevation: Now that we have two dimensional section cuts, we can estimate the area to be cut and filled in the site.
On each section cut the desired land topography is represented as a "cut line" overlaid on the line of the existing land topography. This gives us two lines on every section, and shows us how much of the existing area must be removed or added.
Then, the area between these lines is calculated to find the cut and fill areas for each section. The diagrams below represent the area between the existing elevation line and the cut line.
First, we mark the land that must be added to the site to achieve our desired land topography. This area is marked "fill. This area is marked "cut. Now, once the section areas have been found, we must account for the additional length of the site the land between the section cuts to be able to estimate the volume of the land cut or filled.
Finally, after computing the necessary values we are able to determine not only how much land must be removed from or brought to the site, but also where that land must be specifically taken from or brought to.
Removing or adding land to any site is a costly process, so it is important that our estimations be made as close to the existing conditions as possible. Once we know how much land to cut or fill, and where to cut and fill it, work can begin to properly level the site and construct our building.
Each two-dimensional section cut is overlaid with a grid to allow us to estimate the area between the existing elevation line and the cut line. To estimate area, we can divide the area under the curve into rectangles and then find the area of each rectangle.The deliberate union of so great and various a people in such a place, is without all partiality or prejudice, if not the greatest exertion of human understanding, the greatest single effort of national deliberation that the world has ever seen.
John Adams Quotes.
Here are quotes by one of America's greatest founding fathers, John Adams, and related quotations about America's founding.
For more history, see Founding Fathers. These essays are not intended to replace library research. They are here to show you what others think about a given subject, and to perhaps spark an interest or an idea in you.
To take one of these essays, copy it, and to pass Chaucer's Adherence to the "Three Estates" in the General Prologue.
A comprehensive, coeducational Catholic High school Diocese of Wollongong - Albion Park Act Justly, love tenderly and walk humbly with your God Micah SITE AREA.
The following activity uses the mathematical concepts of estimating area and volume to solve a realistic cut and fill problem. Each two-dimensional section cut is overlaid with a grid to allow us to estimate the area between the existing elevation line and the cut line.
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