His writings explored justice, beauty and equality, and also contained discussions in aesthetics, political philosophy, theology, cosmology, epistemology and the philosophy of language. Plato founded the Academy in Athens, one of the first institutions of higher learning in the Western world. He died in Athens circa B.
He wrote summaries, and middle and long commentaries—often two or all three kinds on the same work. They are extant in the Arabic original or Hebrew translations or both, and some of these translations serve in place of the presumably lost Arabic originals; e.
Only a few of his legal writings and none of his theological writings are preserved.
Undoubtedly his most important writings are three closely connected religious-philosophical polemical treatises, composed in the years and To establish the true, inner meaning of religious beliefs and convictions is the aim of philosophy in its quest for truth.
This inner meaning must not be divulged to the masses, who must accept the plain, external meaning of Scripture contained in stories, similesand metaphors. Nor is it justifiable to say that philosophy is for the metaphysician what religion is for the masses.
These statements reflect the same attitude to law and the same emphasis on happiness. Happiness as the highest good is the aim of political science.
It legitimates speculation because it demands that the believer should know God.
This knowledge is accessible to the naive believer in metaphors, the inner meaning of which is intelligible only to the metaphysician with the help of demonstration. The philosopher is definitely bound by the religious law just as much as the masses and the theologians, who occupy a position somewhere in between.
This means that the philosopher is not bound to accept what is contradicted by demonstration.
He can, thus, abandon belief in the creation out of nothing since Aristotle demonstrated the eternity of matter. Hence creation is a continuing process.
Yet, since there is no consensus on certain theoretical statements, such as creation, he is not bound to conform. Similarly, anthropomorphism is unacceptable, and metaphorical interpretation of those passages in Scripture that describe God in bodily terms is necessary.
While he carried on a long tradition of attempted synthesis between religious law and Greek philosophy, he went beyond his predecessors in spite of large-scale dependence upon them.
Consequently, he applied Platonic ideas to the contemporary Almoravid and Almohad states in a sustained critique in Platonic terms, convinced that if the philosopher cannot rule, he must try to influence policy in the direction of the ideal state.
That women are used only for childbearing and the rearing of offspring is detrimental to the economy and responsible for the poverty of the state.
This is most unorthodox. In declaring them a real danger to the purity of Islam and to the security of the state, he appeals to the ruling power to forbid dialectical theologians to explain their beliefs and convictions to the masses, thus confusing them and causing heresy, schism, and unbelief.
Naturally, Greek pagan ideas and institutions are replaced by Islamic ones.Biography. a biography of the grandfather of democracy plato George Homework help brampton Patton: The philosopher came from one of the wealthiest and most politically.
Cleisthenes was the uncle of Pericles' mother Agariste a biography of the grandfather of . Averroës: Averroës, influential Islamic religious philosopher who integrated Islamic traditions with ancient Greek thought. At the request of the Almohad caliph Abu Yaʿqub Yusuf, he produced a series of summaries and commentaries on most of Aristotle’s works (–95) and on Plato.
Plato is one of the world's best known and most widely read and studied philosophers. He was the student of Socrates and the teacher of Aristotle, and he wrote in the middle of the fourth century B.C.E. in ancient Greece. Though influenced primarily by Socrates, to the extent that Socrates is.
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Plato Biography Plato was a classical Greek philosopher &mathematician who was one of the founders of Western philosophy. This biography profiles his childhood, life, works, achievements, ideas, contributions and some interesting vetconnexx.com Of Birth: Athens.
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